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APA 7th edition - Reference guide: In-text references

Reference guide for APA 7th edition, a guide intended for students at the Univesity of Fort Hare to learn how format references according to the APA 7th edition style.

In-text references

In-text references

The general rule for how to write in-text references according to APA (7th edition) is that you should include the surname(s) of the author(s) and the year of publication, either in brackets at the end or the sentence before the full stop (parenthetical citation) or by incorporating the reference in to the sentence (narrative citation). 


Parenthetical citation Narrative citation

The zebra is a striped animal (Persson, 1985).

Bromus tectorum has been found to alter natural selection in arid systems (Leger & Goergen, 2017).

Social intolerance is a consequence, not a cause, of dispersal in spiders (Chiara et al., 2019).

Persson (1985) remarked that the zebra is a striped animal.

Leger and Goergen (2017) found that Bromus tectorum altered natural selection in arid systems. 

Chiara et al. (2019) found that social intolerance is a consequence, not a cause, of dispersal in spiders.