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Harvard Referencing Style Guide: All examples

This guide shows students and staff how to reference using the Harvard Referencing style.

In-text citations

Two or more works cited at one point in the text

If two or more works by different authors or authoring bodies are cited at one point in the text, use a semi-colon to separate them:

(Larsen 2000; Malinowski 1999)

The authors should be listed in alphabetical order.


Two or three authors or authoring bodies

When citing a work by two or three authors or authoring bodies, cite the names in the order in which they appear on the title page:

(Malinowski, Miller & Gupta 1995) 

Block quotations

A block quote is a longer quote. It consists of more than about 30 words when using the author-date (Harvard) system:

It was stated that:

       If any similiar qualitative research is to be undertaken in the future, then stringent controls should be put in place to ensure such statistical anomalies do not occur through lack 
      of methodological rigor, particularly through corruption of data inadequately stored and processes (Mullane 2006, p.66).

The actual quote is in slightly smaller font and idented from the left hand margin to distinguish it from the surrounding text. 

In-text and reference list examples


Books & eBooks

Material Type

In-Text Example

Reference List Example

Book: single author

(Holt, 1997) or Holt (1997) wrote that...

Holt, D.H. 1997. Management principles and practices. Sydney: Prentice-Hall.

Book: 2 or 3 authors

(McCarthy, William & Pascale, 1997)

McCarthy, E.J., William, D.P. & Pascale, G.Q. 1997. Basic marketing. Sydney: Irwin.

Book: more than 3 authors

(Bond et al., 1996)

Bond, W.R., Smith, J.T., Brown, K.L. & George, M. 1996. Management of small firms. Sydney: McGraw-Hill.

Book: no author

(A history of Greece, 1994)

A history of Greece. 1994. Sydney: Irwin.

Book: editor

(Jones, 1998)

Jones, M.D. (ed.) 1998. Management in Australia. London: Academic Press.

Book: 2 or more editors

(Bullinger & Warnecke, 1985)

Bullinger, H.J. & Warnecke, H.J. (eds.) 1985. Toward the factory of the future. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Book: translator & author

(Smith, 2006)

Colorado, J.A. 2006. Economic theory in the Mexican context: recent developments on the ground. Trans. K. Smith. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Book: organisation as author

(Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 2001)

Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics. 2001. Aquaculture development in Australia: a review of key economic issues. Canberra: ABARE.

Book: chapter or article in edited book

A number of disturbing facts intrude' (Milkman, 1998: 25)

Milkman, R. 1998. The new American workplace: high road or low road? In P. Thompson & C. Warhurst (eds.). Workplaces of the future. London: Macmillan Press, pp. 22-34.

Book: edition other than first

(Drafke, 2009)

Drafke, M. 2009. The human side of organizations. 10th ed. New Jersey: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

Book: reprint in a different form

(Roget's thesaurus of English words and phrases, 1987)

Roget's thesarus of English words and phrases. 1987 (1852).

A simple reprint does not warrant specific mention. Where a work is reprinted in a different form, the original date of publication is generally placed in parentheses after the publication date of the reprint.


(Aghion & Durlauf, 2005)

Aghion, P. & Durlauf, S. (eds.) 2005. Handbook of economic growth. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Available from: Elsevier books. [4 November 2004].

eBook: chapter or article in an edited eBook

'Historical thinking is actually a Western perspective' (White, 2002: 112)

White, H. 2002. 'The westernization of world history.' In J. Rusen (ed.). Western historical thinking: an intercultural debate. New York: Berghahn Books, pp. 111-119. Available from: ACLS Humanities E-Book. [14 May 2009].

Book: different works by same author in same year

(Bond, 1991a) (Bond, 1991b)

Bond, G. 1991a. Business ethics. Sydney: McGraw-Hill.

Bond, G. 1991b. Corporate governance. London: Irwin.

Dictionary or Encyclopaedia

The Macquarie Dictionary (2010)

(The Encyclopaedia of Australian Architecture)

Do not include in reference list

Journal Articles

Material Type

In-Text Example

Reference List Example

CMO article

(Jennings, 1997)

Jennings, P. 1997. The performance and competitive advantage of small firms: a management perspective. International Small Business Journal, 15(2): 63-75. Available from: The University of Western Australia Library Course Materials Online. [1 September 2004].

Journal article: print

(Conley & Galeson, 1998)

Conley, T.G. & Galeson, D.W. 1998. Nativity and wealth in mid-nineteenth century cities. Journal of Economic History, 58(2): 468-493.

Journal article: electronic database

(Liveris, 2011)

Liveris, A. 2011. Ethics as a strategy. Leadership Excellence, 28(2): 17-18. Available from: ProQuest. [23 June 2011].

Journal article: online only journal (no volume & and issue numbers)

“Over a dozen writers applied before the August 31 deadline” (Bustamante, 2014, ‘Public library of Cincinnati’, para. 4).

Bustamante, C. 2014. Libraries welcome writers in residence. Library Journal. Available from: [29 September 2014].

Journal article: online only journal (volume & issue number available)

(Segon & Booth, 2011)

Segon, M. & Booth, C. 2011. Bribery: what do Australian managers know and what do they do? Journal of Business Systems, Governance and Ethics, 6(3): 15-29. Available from: [20 October 2014].


Material Type

In-Text Example

Reference List Example

Webpage: no author

(Improve indigenous housing, 2007)

Use first few words of the page title

Improve indigenous housing now, government told. 2007. Available from: [8 February 2009].

Webpage: no date

(Jones, n.d.)

Jones, M.D. n.d. Commentary on indigenous housing initiatives. Available from: [6 June 2009].

Web document

(Department of Industry, Tourism and Resources, 2006)

Department of Industry, Tourism and Resources. 2006. Being prepared for an influenza pandemic: a kit for small businesses. Government of Australia. Available from: [28 February 2009].


(Australian Securities Exchange, 2009)

Australian Securities Exchange. 2009. Market Information. Available from: [5 July 2009].


(Newton, 2007)

Newton, A. 2007. Newcastle toolkit. 16 January 2007. Angela Newton: Blog. Available from: [23 February 2007].

Computer software

(, 2005), computer software. 2005. Available from:  [11 January 2005].

Web based image / table / figure   

(The Lunar Interior, 2000)

The Lunar Interior. 2000. Available from: [28 November 2000].


(Leonardo da Vinci, 2012)

'Art Wikia', Leonardo da Vinci, (wiki article). October 8, 2012. Available from: [26 October 2012].

As Wikis usually feature user generated content there is usually no named author. Cite the title of the Wiki and date of last revision

Facebook and Twitter   

(Smith, 2012)

Smith, P. 2012. Social networking group, (Facebook). 6 October. Available from: [29 October 2012].


(National Gallery, 2012)

National Gallery. 2012. Episode seventy one (September 2012. The National Gallery monthly podcast, (podcast) September 2012, Available from: [26 October 2012].


(The History of Project management, 2010)   

The history of project management. 2010. (Video file). Available from: [26 October 2012].

MOOCs Video

(Forsey & May, 2013)

Forsey, M. & May, V. 2013. Discussion with Dr Vanessa May, video file in Developing the Sociological Imagination on UWA class2go, Semester 1, 2013, University of Western Australia. Available from: [30 May 2013].

Cases and Legislation

Material Type

In-Text Example

Reference List Example


(R v Tang (2008) 237 CLR 1)

R v Tang (2008) 237 CLR 1.

Acts of Parliament

(Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) s 3)

Corporations Act 2001 (Cth).

Delegated Legislation

(Police Regulations 2003 (Vic) reg 6)

Police Regulations 2003 (Vic) reg 6.


(Corporations Amendment Bill (No 1) 2005 (Cth))

Corporations Amendment Bill (No 1) 2005 (Cth).

Company Information

Material Type

In-Text Example

Reference List Example

Company report

(Aspect Huntley, 2009)

Aspect Huntley Data Analysis. 2009. National Australia Bank Limited company report. Available from: Aspect Huntley Data Analysis. [20 May 2009].

Company profile

(Datamonitor, 2009)

Datamonitor. 2009. Wesfarmers Limited company profile. Available from: Business Source Premier. [20 May 2009].

Financial data

(Datastream, 2009)

Datastream. 2009. S&PASX200 daily index data 2000-2009. Available from: Datastream. [20 May 2009].


(Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2012)

Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2012. Australian demographic statistics 2012, Cat. no. 3101.0, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra. Available from: [26 October 2012]. 

Conference Papers & Proceedings

Material Type

In-Text Example

Reference List Example

Conference proceeding paper: print

(Riley, 1992)

Riley, D. 1992. 'Industrial relations in Australian education', in Contemporary Australasian industrial relations: proceedings of the sixth AIRAANZ conference, ed. D Blackmur, AIRAANZ, Sydney, 124-140.

Conference proceeding paper: electronic

(Fan, Gordon & Pathak, 2000)

Fan, W., Gordon, M.D. & Pathak, R. 2000. 'Personalization of search engine services for effective retrieval and knowledge management', Proceedings of the twenty-first international conference on information systems, 20-34. Available from: ACM Portal: ACM Digital Library. [24 June 2004].

Conference proceeding paper: unpublished

(Brown & Caste, 1990)

Brown, S. & Caste, V. 2004. 'Integrated obstacle detection framework'. Paper presented at the IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, IEEE, Detroit, MI.


Material Type

In-Text Example

Reference List Example

Newspaper: print

(Ionesco, 2001)

Ionesco, J. 2001. Federal election: new Chip in politics, The Advertiser 23 October, p. 10.

Newspaper: electronic database

(Meryment, 2006)

Meryment, E. 2006. Distaff winemakers raise a glass of their own to their own, The Australian 7 October, p. 5. Available from: Factiva. [2 February 2007].

Newspaper: from a website

(Hilts, 1999)

Hilts, P.J. 1999. 'In forecasting their emotions, most people flunk out', The New York Times 16 February. Available from: [19 February 2000].

Newspaper: no author

(The Sydney Morning Herald 7 January 2011: 12)

Not required.


Material Type

In-Text Example

Reference List Example


(Art Nation, 2010)

Art Nation. 2010. (DVD). Sydney: Australian Broadcasting Corporation.

Television programme

(Crystal, 1993)

Crystal, L. (executive producer) 1993. The MacNeil/Lehrer news hour (television broadcast) 11 October 1993, New York and Washington DC, Public Broadcasting Service.

Music track from an album

(Shocked, 1992)

Shocked, M. 1992. 'Over the waterfall', on Arkansas Traveller (CD), New York: Polygram Music.

Standards & Patents

Material Type

In-Text Example

Reference List Example


(Cookson, 1985)

Cookson, A.H. 1985. Particle trap for compressed gas insulated transmission systems, US Patent 4554399.

Patent: Retrieved From a Database

(McCallum, 2008)

McCallum, J.M. (2008). Method for and composition of excipient suitable for use in herbal formulations and formulations derived therefrom, Australian Patent AU 2008100919. Available from: SciFinder Scholar. [8 December 2008].

Standard: retrieved from a database

(Standards Australia, 2008)

Standards Australia 2008. Personal floatation devices - General requirements, AS 4758.1-2008. Available from: Australian Standards. [1 December 2008].

Standard: published

(Standards Australia/New Zealand Standard, 1994)

Standards Australia 1994. Information processing - text and office systems - office document architecture (ODA) and interchange format: part 10: formal specifications, AS/NZS 3951.10:1994, Standards Australia, NSW.


Material Type

In-Text Example

Reference List Example

CMO article

(Jennings, 1997)

Jennings, P. 1997. The performance and competitive advantage of small firms: a management perspective. International Small Business Journal, 15(2): 63-75. Available from: The University of Western Australia Library Course Materials Online. [1 September 2004].

Lecture Notes

Material Type

In-Text Example

Reference List Example

Lecture notes

(Foster, 2004)

Foster, T. 2004. Balance sheets, lecture notes distributed in Financial Accounting 101 at The University of Western Australia, Crawley on 2 November 2005.

Course reader   

(Graber, 2007)

Graber, D. 1997. 'Elections in the television age' in Mass media and American politics, CQ Press, Washington DC, p. 228, COMM2001 Communication and Mass Media Course Reader, Semester 2, 2012, University of Western Australia.


Material Type

In-Text Example

Reference List Example

Thesis: unpublished

(Hos, 2005)

Hos, J.P. 2005. Mechanochemically synthesized nanomaterials for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell membranes. PhD thesis, University of Western Australia.

Thesis: published

(May, 2007)

May, B. 2007. A survey of radial velocities in the zodiacal dust cloud. Bristol UK, Canopus Publishing.

Thesis: retrieved from a database

(Cincura, 2012)

Cincura, M. 2012. Beyond profit-centric: transcendent business modelling. PhD thesis, Swinburne University of Technology. Available from: Trove. [12 August 2013].

Tables and figures

Material Type

In-Text Example

Reference List Example

All or part of a table, figure, or data used in text: from a print journal

Note. From [or The data in column # are from] 'Evaluating the effectiveness of best management practices using dynamic modelling' (Ackerman & Stein, 2008: 634)

Ackerman, D. & Stein, E.D. 2008. Evaluating the effectiveness of best management practices using dynamic modelling. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 134(8): 629-639.

Add in-text citation to the text of the illustration’s caption.

All or part of a table, figure or data used in text: from a book

Note. From [or The data in column # are from]  Thermophysical properties of fluids p. 113 (Assael, 1998: 70)

Assael, M. 1998. Thermophysical properties of fluids. London: Imperial College Press.

Add in-text citation to the text of the illustration’s caption.

All or part of a table, figure or data used in text: from the web

Note. From [or The data in column # are from] International merchandise imports AustraliaJanuary 2009 (ABS, 2009)

Australian Bureau of Statistics 2009, International merchandise imports Australia, January 2009 (No. 5439.0). Available from: . [6 March 2014].

Add in-text citation to the text of the illustration’s caption.

Personal communication

Material Type

In-Text Example

Telephone call, interview, e-mail, etc.

If the information you are referencing was obtained by a personal communication such as a telephone call, interview or email, this should be documented in the text and are not added to the reference list. If desired you can add the abbreviation pers.comm. to the reference.

  • When interviewed on 6 June 2008, Mr M Ward confirmed...
  • (Mrs S Byrne 2012, pers.comm., 6 June)

Citing information someone else has cited

Material Type

In-Text Example

Reference List Example

Citing information that someone else has cited

(O'Reilly, cited in Byrne, 2008)

Byrne, A. 2008. Web 2.0 strategies in libraries and information services. The Australian Library Journal, 57(4): 365-376.

In the reference list provide the details of the author who has done the citing.